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SQL query context


Apache Druid supports two query languages: Druid SQL and native queries. This document describes the SQL language.

Druid supports query context parameters which affect SQL query planning. See Query context for general query context parameters for all query types.

SQL query context parameters

Configure Druid SQL query planning using the parameters in the table below.

ParameterDescriptionDefault value
sqlQueryIdUnique identifier given to this SQL query. For HTTP client, it will be returned in X-Druid-SQL-Query-Id header.

To specify a unique identifier for SQL query, use sqlQueryId instead of queryId. Setting queryId for a SQL request has no effect. All native queries underlying SQL use an auto-generated queryId.
sqlTimeZoneSets the time zone for this connection, which will affect how time functions and timestamp literals behave. Should be a time zone name like "America/Los_Angeles" or offset like "-08:00".druid.sql.planner.sqlTimeZone on the Broker (default: UTC)
sqlStringifyArraysWhen set to true, result columns which return array values will be serialized into a JSON string in the response instead of as an arraytrue, except for JDBC connections, where it is always false
useApproximateCountDistinctWhether to use an approximate cardinality algorithm for COUNT(DISTINCT foo).druid.sql.planner.useApproximateCountDistinct on the Broker (default: true)
useGroupingSetForExactDistinctWhether to use grouping sets to execute queries with multiple exact distinct aggregations.druid.sql.planner.useGroupingSetForExactDistinct on the Broker (default: false)
useApproximateTopNWhether to use approximate TopN queries when a SQL query could be expressed as such. If false, exact GroupBy queries will be used instead.druid.sql.planner.useApproximateTopN on the Broker (default: true)
enableTimeBoundaryPlanningIf true, SQL queries will get converted to TimeBoundary queries wherever possible. TimeBoundary queries are very efficient for min-max calculation on __time column in a datasourcedruid.query.default.context.enableTimeBoundaryPlanning on the Broker (default: false)
useNativeQueryExplainIf true, EXPLAIN PLAN FOR will return the explain plan as a JSON representation of equivalent native query(s), else it will return the original version of explain plan generated by Calcite.

This property is provided for backwards compatibility. It is not recommended to use this parameter unless you were depending on the older behavior.
druid.sql.planner.useNativeQueryExplain on the Broker (default: true)
sqlFinalizeOuterSketchesIf false (default behavior in Druid 25.0.0 and later), DS_HLL, DS_THETA, and DS_QUANTILES_SKETCH return sketches in query results, as documented. If true (default behavior in Druid 24.0.1 and earlier), sketches from these functions are finalized when they appear in query results.

This property is provided for backwards compatibility with behavior in Druid 24.0.1 and earlier. It is not recommended to use this parameter unless you were depending on the older behavior. Instead, use a function that does not return a sketch, such as APPROX_COUNT_DISTINCT_DS_HLL, APPROX_COUNT_DISTINCT_DS_THETA, APPROX_QUANTILE_DS, DS_THETA_ESTIMATE, or DS_GET_QUANTILE.
druid.query.default.context.sqlFinalizeOuterSketches on the Broker (default: false)
sqlUseBoundAndSelectorsIf false (default behavior if druid.generic.useDefaultValueForNull=false in Druid 27.0.0 and later), the SQL planner will use equality, null, and range filters instead of selector and bounds. This value must be set to false for correct behavior for filtering ARRAY typed values.Defaults to same value as druid.generic.useDefaultValueForNull, which is false

Setting the query context

The query context parameters can be specified as a "context" object in the JSON API or as a JDBC connection properties object. See examples for each option below.

Example using JSON API

"query" : "SELECT COUNT(*) FROM data_source WHERE foo = 'bar' AND __time > TIMESTAMP '2000-01-01 00:00:00'",
"context" : {
"sqlTimeZone" : "America/Los_Angeles"

Example using JDBC

String url = "jdbc:avatica:remote:url=http://localhost:8082/druid/v2/sql/avatica/";

// Set any query context parameters you need here.
Properties connectionProperties = new Properties();
connectionProperties.setProperty("sqlTimeZone", "America/Los_Angeles");
connectionProperties.setProperty("useCache", "false");

try (Connection connection = DriverManager.getConnection(url, connectionProperties)) {
// create and execute statements, process result sets, etc