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All Druid SQL functions

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Apache Druid supports two query languages: Druid SQL and native queries. This document describes the SQL language.

This page provides a reference of all Druid SQL functions in alphabetical order. Click the linked function type for documentation on a particular function.

ABS

ABS(<NUMERIC>)

Function type: Scalar, numeric

Calculates the absolute value of a numeric expression.

ACOS

ACOS(<NUMERIC>)

Function type: Scalar, numeric

Calculates the arc cosine of a numeric expression.

ANY_VALUE

ANY_VALUE(expr, [maxBytesPerValue])

Function type: Aggregation

Returns any value of the specified expression.

APPROX_COUNT_DISTINCT

APPROX_COUNT_DISTINCT(expr)

Function type: Aggregation

Counts distinct values of a regular column or a prebuilt sketch column.

APPROX_COUNT_DISTINCT_BUILTIN(expr)

Function type: Aggregation

Counts distinct values of a string, numeric, or hyperUnique column using Druid's built-in cardinality or hyperUnique aggregators.

APPROX_COUNT_DISTINCT_DS_HLL

APPROX_COUNT_DISTINCT_DS_HLL(expr, [<NUMERIC>, <CHARACTER>])

Function type: Aggregation

Counts distinct values of an HLL sketch column or a regular column.

APPROX_COUNT_DISTINCT_DS_THETA

APPROX_COUNT_DISTINCT_DS_THETA(expr, [<NUMERIC>])

Function type: Aggregation

Counts distinct values of a Theta sketch column or a regular column.

APPROX_QUANTILE

APPROX_QUANTILE(expr, <NUMERIC>, [<NUMERIC>])

Function type: Aggregation

Deprecated in favor of APPROX_QUANTILE_DS.

APPROX_QUANTILE_DS

APPROX_QUANTILE_DS(expr, <NUMERIC>, [<NUMERIC>])

Function type: Aggregation

Computes approximate quantiles on a Quantiles sketch column or a regular numeric column.

APPROX_QUANTILE_FIXED_BUCKETS

APPROX_QUANTILE_FIXED_BUCKETS(expr, <NUMERIC>, <NUMERIC>, <NUMERIC>, <NUMERIC>, [<CHARACTER>])

Function type: Aggregation

Computes approximate quantiles on fixed buckets histogram column or a regular numeric column.

ARRAY[]

ARRAY[expr1, expr2, ...]

Function type: Array

Constructs a SQL ARRAY literal from the expression arguments. The arguments must be of the same type.

ARRAY_AGG

ARRAY_AGG([DISTINCT] expr, [<NUMERIC>])

Function type: Aggregation

Returns an array of all values of the specified expression.

ARRAY_APPEND

ARRAY_APPEND(arr1, expr)

Function type: Array

Appends expr to arr, the resulting array type determined by the type of arr1.

ARRAY_CONCAT

ARRAY_CONCAT(arr1, arr2)

Function type: Array

Concatenates arr2 to arr1. The resulting array type is determined by the type of arr1.|

ARRAY_CONCAT_AGG

ARRAY_CONCAT_AGG([DISTINCT] expr, [<NUMERIC>])

Function type: Aggregation

Concatenates array inputs into a single array.

ARRAY_CONTAINS

ARRAY_CONTAINS(arr, expr)

Function type: Array

If expr is a scalar type, returns 1 if arr contains expr. If expr is an array, returns 1 if arr contains all elements of expr. Otherwise returns 0.

ARRAY_LENGTH

ARRAY_LENGTH(arr)

Function type: Array

Returns length of the array expression.

ARRAY_OFFSET

ARRAY_OFFSET(arr, long)

Function type: Array

Returns the array element at the 0-based index supplied, or null for an out of range index.

ARRAY_OFFSET_OF

ARRAY_OFFSET_OF(arr, expr)

Function type: Array

Returns the 0-based index of the first occurrence of expr in the array. If no matching elements exist in the array, returns null or -1 if druid.generic.useDefaultValueForNull=true (legacy mode)..

ARRAY_ORDINAL

Function type: Array

ARRAY_ORDINAL(arr, long)

Returns the array element at the 1-based index supplied, or null for an out of range index.

ARRAY_ORDINAL_OF

ARRAY_ORDINAL_OF(arr, expr)

Function type: Array

Returns the 1-based index of the first occurrence of expr in the array. If no matching elements exist in the array, returns null or -1 if druid.generic.useDefaultValueForNull=true (legacy mode)..|

ARRAY_OVERLAP

ARRAY_OVERLAP(arr1, arr2)

Function type: Array

Returns 1 if arr1 and arr2 have any elements in common, else 0.|

ARRAY_PREPEND

ARRAY_PREPEND(expr, arr)

Function type: Array

Prepends expr to arr at the beginning, the resulting array type determined by the type of arr.

ARRAY_SLICE

ARRAY_SLICE(arr, start, end)

Function type: Array

Returns the subarray of arr from the 0-based index start (inclusive) to end (exclusive). Returns null, if start is less than 0, greater than length of arr, or greater than end.

ARRAY_TO_MV

ARRAY_TO_MV(arr)

Function type: Array

Converts an ARRAY of any type into a multi-value string VARCHAR.

ARRAY_TO_STRING

ARRAY_TO_STRING(arr, str)

Function type: Array

Joins all elements of arr by the delimiter specified by str.

ASIN

ASIN(<NUMERIC>)

Function type: Scalar, numeric

Calculates the arc sine of a numeric expression.

ATAN

ATAN(<NUMERIC>)

Function type: Scalar, numeric

Calculates the arc tangent of a numeric expression.

ATAN2

ATAN2(<NUMERIC>, <NUMERIC>)

Function type: Scalar, numeric

Calculates the arc tangent of the two arguments.

AVG

AVG(<NUMERIC>)

Function type: Aggregation

Calculates the average of a set of values.

BIT_AND

BIT_AND(expr)

Function type: Aggregation

Performs a bitwise AND operation on all input values.

BIT_OR

BIT_OR(expr)

Function type: Aggregation

Performs a bitwise OR operation on all input values.

BIT_XOR

BIT_XOR(expr)

Function type: Aggregation

Performs a bitwise XOR operation on all input values.

BITWISE_AND

BITWISE_AND(expr1, expr2)

Function type: Scalar, numeric

Returns the bitwise AND between the two expressions, that is, expr1 & expr2.

BITWISE_COMPLEMENT

BITWISE_COMPLEMENT(expr)

Function type: Scalar, numeric

Returns the bitwise NOT for the expression, that is, ~expr.

BITWISE_CONVERT_DOUBLE_TO_LONG_BITS

BITWISE_CONVERT_DOUBLE_TO_LONG_BITS(expr)

Function type: Scalar, numeric

Converts the bits of an IEEE 754 floating-point double value to a long.

BITWISE_CONVERT_LONG_BITS_TO_DOUBLE

BITWISE_CONVERT_LONG_BITS_TO_DOUBLE(expr)

Function type: Scalar, numeric

Converts a long to the IEEE 754 floating-point double specified by the bits stored in the long.

BITWISE_OR

BITWISE_OR(expr1, expr2)

Function type: Scalar, numeric

Returns the bitwise OR between the two expressions, that is, expr1 | expr2.

BITWISE_SHIFT_LEFT

BITWISE_SHIFT_LEFT(expr1, expr2)

Function type: Scalar, numeric

Returns a bitwise left shift of expr1, that is, expr1 << expr2.

BITWISE_SHIFT_RIGHT

BITWISE_SHIFT_RIGHT(expr1, expr2)

Function type: Scalar, numeric

Returns a bitwise right shift of expr1, that is, expr1 >> expr2.

BITWISE_XOR

BITWISE_XOR(expr1, expr2)

Function type: Scalar, numeric

Returns the bitwise exclusive OR between the two expressions, that is, expr1 ^ expr2.

BLOOM_FILTER

BLOOM_FILTER(expr, <NUMERIC>)

Function type: Aggregation

Computes a Bloom filter from values produced by the specified expression.

BLOOM_FILTER_TEST

BLOOM_FILTER_TEST(expr, <STRING>)

Function type: Scalar, other

Returns true if the expression is contained in a Base64-serialized Bloom filter.

BTRIM

BTRIM(<CHARACTER>, [<CHARACTER>])

Function type: Scalar, string

Trims characters from both the leading and trailing ends of an expression.

CASE

CASE expr WHEN value1 THEN result1 \[ WHEN value2 THEN result2 ... \] \[ ELSE resultN \] END

Function type: Scalar, other

Returns a result based on a given condition.

CAST

CAST(value AS TYPE)

Function type: Scalar, other

Converts a value into the specified data type.

CEIL (date and time)

CEIL(<TIMESTAMP> TO <TIME_UNIT>)

Function type: Scalar, date and time

Rounds up a timestamp by a given time unit.

CEIL (numeric)

CEIL(<NUMERIC>)

Function type: Scalar, numeric

Calculates the smallest integer value greater than or equal to the numeric expression.

CHAR_LENGTH

CHAR_LENGTH(expr)

Function type: Scalar, string

Alias for LENGTH.

CHARACTER_LENGTH

CHARACTER_LENGTH(expr)

Function type: Scalar, string

Alias for LENGTH.

COALESCE

COALESCE(expr, expr, ...)

Function type: Scalar, other

Returns the first non-null value.

CONCAT

CONCAT(expr, expr...)

Function type: Scalar, string

Concatenates a list of expressions.

CONTAINS_STRING

CONTAINS_STRING(<CHARACTER>, <CHARACTER>)

Function type: Scalar, string

Finds whether a string is in a given expression, case-sensitive.

COS

COS(<NUMERIC>)

Function type: Scalar, numeric

Calculates the trigonometric cosine of an angle expressed in radians.

COT

COT(<NUMERIC>)

Function type: Scalar, numeric

Calculates the trigonometric cotangent of an angle expressed in radians.

COUNT

COUNT([DISTINCT] expr)

COUNT(*)

Function type: Aggregation

Counts the number of rows.

CURRENT_DATE

CURRENT_DATE

Function type: Scalar, date and time

Returns the current date in the connection's time zone.

CURRENT_TIMESTAMP

CURRENT_TIMESTAMP

Function type: Scalar, date and time

Returns the current timestamp in the connection's time zone.

DATE_TRUNC

DATE_TRUNC(<CHARACTER>, <TIMESTAMP>)

Function type: Scalar, date and time

Rounds down a timestamp by a given time unit.

DEGREES

DEGREES(<NUMERIC>)

Function type: Scalar, numeric

Converts an angle from radians to degrees.

DIV

DIV(x, y)

Function type: Scalar, numeric

Returns the result of integer division of x by y.

DS_CDF

DS_CDF(expr, splitPoint0, splitPoint1, ...)

Function type: Scalar, sketch

Returns a string representing an approximation to the Cumulative Distribution Function given the specified bin definition.

DS_GET_QUANTILE

DS_GET_QUANTILE(expr, fraction)

Function type: Scalar, sketch

Returns the quantile estimate corresponding to fraction from a quantiles sketch.

DS_GET_QUANTILES

DS_GET_QUANTILES(expr, fraction0, fraction1, ...)

Function type: Scalar, sketch

Returns a string representing an array of quantile estimates corresponding to a list of fractions from a quantiles sketch.

DS_HISTOGRAM

DS_HISTOGRAM(expr, splitPoint0, splitPoint1, ...)

Function type: Scalar, sketch

Returns a string representing an approximation to the histogram given the specified bin definition.

DS_HLL

DS_HLL(expr, [lgK, tgtHllType])

Function type: Aggregation

Creates an HLL sketch on a column containing HLL sketches or a regular column.

DS_QUANTILE_SUMMARY

DS_QUANTILE_SUMMARY(expr)

Function type: Scalar, sketch

Returns a string summary of a quantiles sketch.

DS_QUANTILES_SKETCH

DS_QUANTILES_SKETCH(expr, [k])

Function type: Aggregation

Creates a Quantiles sketch on a column containing Quantiles sketches or a regular column.

DS_RANK

DS_RANK(expr, value)

Function type: Scalar, sketch

Returns an approximate rank between 0 and 1 of a given value, in which the rank signifies the fraction of the distribution less than the given value.

DS_THETA

DS_THETA(expr, [size])

Function type: Aggregation

Creates a Theta sketch on a column containing Theta sketches or a regular column.

DS_TUPLE_DOUBLES

DS_TUPLE_DOUBLES(expr, [nominalEntries])

DS_TUPLE_DOUBLES(dimensionColumnExpr, metricColumnExpr, ..., [nominalEntries])

Function type: Aggregation

Creates a Tuple sketch which contains an array of double values as the Summary Object. If the last value of the array is a numeric literal, Druid assumes that the value is an override parameter for nominal entries.

DS_TUPLE_DOUBLES_INTERSECT

DS_TUPLE_DOUBLES_INTERSECT(expr, ..., [nominalEntries])

Function type: Scalar, sketch

Returns an intersection of Tuple sketches which each contain an array of double values as their Summary Objects. The values contained in the Summary Objects are summed when combined. If the last value of the array is a numeric literal, Druid assumes that the value is an override parameter for nominal entries.

DS_TUPLE_DOUBLES_METRICS_SUM_ESTIMATE

DS_TUPLE_DOUBLES_METRICS_SUM_ESTIMATE(expr)

Function type: Scalar, sketch

Computes approximate sums of the values contained within a Tuple sketch which contains an array of double values as the Summary Object.

DS_TUPLE_DOUBLES_NOT

DS_TUPLE_DOUBLES_NOT(expr, ..., [nominalEntries])

Function type: Scalar, sketch

Returns a set difference of Tuple sketches which each contain an array of double values as their Summary Objects. The values contained in the Summary Object are preserved as is. If the last value of the array is a numeric literal, Druid assumes that the value is an override parameter for nominal entries.

DS_TUPLE_DOUBLES_UNION

DS_TUPLE_DOUBLES_UNION(expr, ..., [nominalEntries])

Function type: Scalar, sketch

Returns a union of Tuple sketches which each contain an array of double values as their Summary Objects. The values contained in the Summary Objects are summed when combined. If the last value of the array is a numeric literal, Druid assumes that the value is an override parameter for nominal entries.

EARLIEST

EARLIEST(expr, [maxBytesPerValue])

Function type: Aggregation

Returns the value of a numeric or string expression corresponding to the earliest __time value.

EARLIEST_BY

EARLIEST_BY(expr, timestampExpr, [maxBytesPerValue])

Function type: Aggregation

Returns the value of a numeric or string expression corresponding to the earliest time value from timestampExpr.

EXP

EXP(<NUMERIC>)

Function type: Scalar, numeric

Calculates e raised to the power of the numeric expression.

EXTRACT

EXTRACT(<TIME_UNIT> FROM <TIMESTAMP>)

Function type: Scalar, date and time

Extracts the value of some unit of the timestamp, optionally from a certain time zone, and returns the number.

FLOOR (date and time)

FLOOR(<TIMESTAMP> TO <TIME_UNIT>)

Function type: Scalar, date and time

Rounds down a timestamp by a given time unit.

FLOOR (numeric)

FLOOR(<NUMERIC>)

Function type: Scalar, numeric

Calculates the largest integer value less than or equal to the numeric expression.

GREATEST

GREATEST([expr1, ...])

Function type: Scalar, reduction

Returns the maximum value from the provided arguments.

GROUPING

GROUPING(expr, expr...)

Function type: Aggregation

Returns a number for each output row of a groupBy query, indicating whether the specified dimension is included for that row.

HLL_SKETCH_ESTIMATE

HLL_SKETCH_ESTIMATE(expr, [round])

Function type: Scalar, sketch

Returns the distinct count estimate from an HLL sketch.

HLL_SKETCH_ESTIMATE_WITH_ERROR_BOUNDS

HLL_SKETCH_ESTIMATE_WITH_ERROR_BOUNDS(expr, [numStdDev])

Function type: Scalar, sketch

Returns the distinct count estimate and error bounds from an HLL sketch.

HLL_SKETCH_TO_STRING

HLL_SKETCH_TO_STRING(expr)

Function type: Scalar, sketch

Returns a human-readable string representation of an HLL sketch.

HLL_SKETCH_UNION

HLL_SKETCH_UNION([lgK, tgtHllType], expr0, expr1, ...)

Function type: Scalar, sketch

Returns a union of HLL sketches.

HUMAN_READABLE_BINARY_BYTE_FORMAT

HUMAN_READABLE_BINARY_BYTE_FORMAT(value[, precision])

Function type: Scalar, numeric

Converts an integer byte size into human-readable IEC format.

HUMAN_READABLE_DECIMAL_BYTE_FORMAT

HUMAN_READABLE_DECIMAL_BYTE_FORMAT(value[, precision])

Function type: Scalar, numeric

Converts a byte size into human-readable SI format.

HUMAN_READABLE_DECIMAL_FORMAT

HUMAN_READABLE_DECIMAL_FORMAT(value[, precision])

Function type: Scalar, numeric

Converts a byte size into human-readable SI format with single-character units.

ICONTAINS_STRING

ICONTAINS_STRING(<expr>, str)

Function type: Scalar, string

Finds whether a string is in a given expression, case-insensitive.

IPV4_MATCH

IPV4_MATCH(address, subnet)

Function type: Scalar, IP address

Returns true if the address belongs to the subnet literal, else false.

IPV4_PARSE

IPV4_PARSE(address)

Function type: Scalar, IP address

Parses address into an IPv4 address stored as an integer.

IPV4_STRINGIFY

IPV4_STRINGIFY(address)

Function type: Scalar, IP address

Converts address into an IPv4 address in dot-decimal notation.

JSON_KEYS

Function type: JSON

JSON_KEYS(expr, path)

Returns an array of field names from expr at the specified path.

JSON_OBJECT

Function type: JSON

JSON_OBJECT(KEY expr1 VALUE expr2[, KEY expr3 VALUE expr4, ...])

Constructs a new COMPLEX<json> object. The KEY expressions must evaluate to string types. The VALUE expressions can be composed of any input type, including other COMPLEX<json> values. JSON_OBJECT can accept colon-separated key-value pairs. The following syntax is equivalent: JSON_OBJECT(expr1:expr2[, expr3:expr4, ...]).

JSON_PATHS

Function type: JSON

JSON_PATHS(expr)

Returns an array of all paths which refer to literal values in expr in JSONPath format.

JSON_QUERY

Function type: JSON

JSON_QUERY(expr, path)

Extracts a COMPLEX<json> value from expr, at the specified path.

JSON_VALUE

Function type: JSON

JSON_VALUE(expr, path [RETURNING sqlType])

Extracts a literal value from expr at the specified path. If you specify RETURNING and an SQL type name (such as VARCHAR, BIGINT, DOUBLE, etc) the function plans the query using the suggested type. Otherwise, it attempts to infer the type based on the context. If it can't infer the type, it defaults to VARCHAR.

LATEST

LATEST(expr, [maxBytesPerValue])

Function type: Aggregation

Returns the value of a numeric or string expression corresponding to the latest __time value.

LATEST_BY

LATEST_BY(expr, timestampExpr, [maxBytesPerValue])

Function type: Aggregation

Returns the value of a numeric or string expression corresponding to the latest time value from timestampExpr.

LEAST

LEAST([expr1, ...])

Function type: Scalar, reduction

Returns the minimum value from the provided arguments.

LEFT

LEFT(expr, [length])

Function type: Scalar, string

Returns the leftmost number of characters from an expression.

LENGTH

LENGTH(expr)

Function type: Scalar, string

Returns the length of the expression in UTF-16 encoding.

LN

LN(expr)

Function type: Scalar, numeric

Calculates the natural logarithm of the numeric expression.

LOG10

LOG10(expr)

Function type: Scalar, numeric

Calculates the base-10 of the numeric expression.

LOOKUP

LOOKUP(<CHARACTER>, <CHARACTER>[, <CHARACTER>])

Function type: Scalar, string

Looks up the expression in a registered query-time lookup table.

LOWER

LOWER(expr)

Function type: Scalar, string

Returns the expression in lowercase.

LPAD

LPAD(<CHARACTER>, <INTEGER>, [<CHARACTER>])

Function type: Scalar, string

Returns the leftmost number of characters from an expression, optionally padded with the given characters.

LTRIM

LTRIM(<CHARACTER>, [<CHARACTER>])

Function type: Scalar, string

Trims characters from the leading end of an expression.

MAX

MAX(expr)

Function type: Aggregation

Returns the maximum value of a set of values.

MILLIS_TO_TIMESTAMP

MILLIS_TO_TIMESTAMP(millis_expr)

Function type: Scalar, date and time

Converts a number of milliseconds since epoch into a timestamp.

MIN

MIN(expr)

Function type: Aggregation

Returns the minimum value of a set of values.

MOD

MOD(x, y)

Function type: Scalar, numeric

Calculates x modulo y, or the remainder of x divided by y.

MV_APPEND

MV_APPEND(arr1, expr)

Function type: Multi-value string

Adds the expression to the end of the array.

MV_CONCAT

MV_CONCAT(arr1, arr2)

Function type: Multi-value string

Concatenates two arrays.

MV_CONTAINS

MV_CONTAINS(arr, expr)

Function type: Multi-value string

Returns true if the expression is in the array, false otherwise.

MV_FILTER_NONE

MV_FILTER_NONE(expr, arr)

Function type: Multi-value string

Filters a multi-value expression to include no values contained in the array.

MV_FILTER_ONLY

MV_FILTER_ONLY(expr, arr)

Function type: Multi-value string

Filters a multi-value expression to include only values contained in the array.

MV_LENGTH

MV_LENGTH(arr)

Function type: Multi-value string

Returns the length of an array expression.

MV_OFFSET

MV_OFFSET(arr, long)

Function type: Multi-value string

Returns the array element at the given zero-based index.

MV_OFFSET_OF

MV_OFFSET_OF(arr, expr)

Function type: Multi-value string

Returns the zero-based index of the first occurrence of a given expression in the array.

MV_ORDINAL

MV_ORDINAL(arr, long)

Function type: Multi-value string

Returns the array element at the given one-based index.

MV_ORDINAL_OF

MV_ORDINAL_OF(arr, expr)

Function type: Multi-value string

Returns the one-based index of the first occurrence of a given expression.

MV_OVERLAP

MV_OVERLAP(arr1, arr2)

Function type: Multi-value string

Returns true if the two arrays have any elements in common, false otherwise.

MV_PREPEND

MV_PREPEND(expr, arr)

Function type: Multi-value string

Adds the expression to the beginning of the array.

MV_SLICE

MV_SLICE(arr, start, end)

Function type: Multi-value string

Returns a slice of the array from the zero-based start and end indexes.

MV_TO_STRING

MV_TO_STRING(arr, str)

Function type: Multi-value string

Joins all elements of the array together by the given delimiter.

NULLIF

NULLIF(value1, value2)

Function type: Scalar, other

Returns NULL if two values are equal, else returns the first value.

NVL

NVL(e1, e2)

Function type: Scalar, other

Returns e2 if e1 is null, else returns e1.

PARSE_JSON

Function type: JSON

PARSE_JSON(expr)

Parses expr into a COMPLEX<json> object. This operator deserializes JSON values when processing them, translating stringified JSON into a nested structure. If the input is not a VARCHAR or it is invalid JSON, this function will result in an error.

PARSE_LONG

PARSE_LONG(<CHARACTER>, [<INTEGER>])

Function type: Scalar, string

Converts a string into a BIGINT with the given base or into a DECIMAL data type if the base is not specified.

POSITION

POSITION(<CHARACTER> IN <CHARACTER> [FROM <INTEGER>])

Function type: Scalar, string

Returns the one-based index position of a substring within an expression, optionally starting from a given one-based index.

POWER

POWER(expr, power)

Function type: Scalar, numeric

Calculates a numerical expression raised to the specified power.

RADIANS

RADIANS(expr)

Function type: Scalar, numeric

Converts an angle from degrees to radians.

REGEXP_EXTRACT

REGEXP_EXTRACT(<CHARACTER>, <CHARACTER>, [<INTEGER>])

Function type: Scalar, string

Applies a regular expression to the string expression and returns the _n_th match.

REGEXP_LIKE

REGEXP_LIKE(<CHARACTER>, <CHARACTER>)

Function type: Scalar, string

Returns true or false signifying whether the regular expression finds a match in the string expression.

REGEXP_REPLACE

REGEXP_REPLACE(<CHARACTER>, <CHARACTER>, <CHARACTER>)

Function type: Scalar, string

Replaces all occurrences of a regular expression in a string expression with a replacement string. The replacement string may refer to capture groups using $1, $2, etc.

REPEAT

REPEAT(<CHARACTER>, [<INTEGER>])

Function type: Scalar, string

Repeats the string expression an integer number of times.

REPLACE

REPLACE(expr, pattern, replacement)

Function type: Scalar, string

Replaces a pattern with another string in the given expression.

REVERSE

REVERSE(expr)

Function type: Scalar, string

Reverses the given expression.

RIGHT(expr, [length])

Function type: Scalar, string

Returns the rightmost number of characters from an expression.

ROUND

ROUND(expr[, digits])

Function type: Scalar, numeric

Calculates the rounded value for a numerical expression.

RPAD

RPAD(<CHARACTER>, <INTEGER>, [<CHARACTER>])

Function type: Scalar, string

Returns the rightmost number of characters from an expression, optionally padded with the given characters.

RTRIM

RTRIM(<CHARACTER>, [<CHARACTER>])

Function type: Scalar, string

Trims characters from the trailing end of an expression.

SAFE_DIVIDE

SAFE_DIVIDE(x, y)

Function type: Scalar, numeric

Returns x divided by y, guarded on division by 0.

SIN

SIN(expr)

Function type: Scalar, numeric

Calculates the trigonometric sine of an angle expressed in radians.

SQRT

SQRT(expr)

Function type: Scalar, numeric

Calculates the square root of a numeric expression.

STDDEV

STDDEV(expr)

Function type: Aggregation

Alias for STDDEV_SAMP.

STDDEV_POP

STDDEV_POP(expr)

Function type: Aggregation

Calculates the population standard deviation of a set of values.

STDDEV_SAMP

STDDEV_SAMP(expr)

Function type: Aggregation

Calculates the sample standard deviation of a set of values.

STRING_AGG

STRING_AGG(expr, separator, [size])

Function type: Aggregation

Collects all values of an expression into a single string.

STRING_TO_ARRAY

STRING_TO_ARRAY(str1, str2)

Function type: Array

Splits str1 into an array on the delimiter specified by str2, which is a regular expression.

STRING_FORMAT

STRING_FORMAT(pattern[, args...])

Function type: Scalar, string

Returns a string formatted in accordance to Java's String.format method.

STRING_TO_MV

STRING_TO_MV(str1, str2)

Function type: Multi-value string

Converts a string into an array, split by the given delimiter.

STRLEN

STRLEN(expr)

Function type: Scalar, string

Alias for LENGTH.

STRPOS

STRPOS(<CHARACTER>, <CHARACTER>)

Function type: Scalar, string

Returns the one-based index position of a substring within an expression.

SUBSTR

SUBSTR(<CHARACTER>, <INTEGER>, [<INTEGER>])

Function type: Scalar, string

Alias for SUBSTRING.

SUBSTRING

SUBSTRING(<CHARACTER>, <INTEGER>, [<INTEGER>])

Function type: Scalar, string

Returns a substring of the expression starting at a given one-based index.

SUM

SUM(expr)

Function type: Aggregation

Calculates the sum of a set of values.

TAN

TAN(expr)

Function type: Scalar, numeric

Calculates the trigonometric tangent of an angle expressed in radians.

TDIGEST_GENERATE_SKETCH

TDIGEST_GENERATE_SKETCH(expr, [compression])

Function type: Aggregation

Generates a T-digest sketch from values of the specified expression.

TDIGEST_QUANTILE

TDIGEST_QUANTILE(expr, quantileFraction, [compression])

Function type: Aggregation

Returns the quantile for the specified fraction from a T-Digest sketch constructed from values of the expression.

TEXTCAT

TEXTCAT(<CHARACTER>, <CHARACTER>)

Function type: Scalar, string

Concatenates two string expressions.

THETA_SKETCH_ESTIMATE

THETA_SKETCH_ESTIMATE(expr)

Function type: Scalar, sketch

Returns the distinct count estimate from a Theta sketch.

THETA_SKETCH_ESTIMATE_WITH_ERROR_BOUNDS

THETA_SKETCH_ESTIMATE_WITH_ERROR_BOUNDS(expr, errorBoundsStdDev)

Function type: Scalar, sketch

Returns the distinct count estimate and error bounds from a Theta sketch.

THETA_SKETCH_INTERSECT

THETA_SKETCH_INTERSECT([size], expr0, expr1, ...)

Function type: Scalar, sketch

Returns an intersection of Theta sketches.

THETA_SKETCH_NOT

THETA_SKETCH_NOT([size], expr0, expr1, ...)

Function type: Scalar, sketch

Returns a set difference of Theta sketches.

THETA_SKETCH_UNION

THETA_SKETCH_UNION([size], expr0, expr1, ...)

Function type: Scalar, sketch

Returns a union of Theta sketches.

TIME_CEIL

TIME_CEIL(<TIMESTAMP>, <period>, [<origin>, [<timezone>]])

Function type: Scalar, date and time

Rounds up a timestamp by a given time period, optionally from some reference time or timezone.

TIME_EXTRACT

TIME_EXTRACT(<TIMESTAMP>, [<unit>, [<timezone>]])

Function type: Scalar, date and time

Extracts the value of some unit of the timestamp and returns the number.

TIME_FLOOR

TIME_FLOOR(<TIMESTAMP>, <period>, [<origin>, [<timezone>]])

Function type: Scalar, date and time

Rounds down a timestamp by a given time period, optionally from some reference time or timezone.

TIME_FORMAT

TIME_FORMAT(<TIMESTAMP>, [<pattern>, [<timezone>]])

Function type: Scalar, date and time

Formats a timestamp as a string.

TIME_IN_INTERVAL

TIME_IN_INTERVAL(<TIMESTAMP>, <CHARACTER>)

Function type: Scalar, date and time

Returns whether a timestamp is contained within a particular interval, formatted as a string.

TIME_PARSE

TIME_PARSE(<string_expr>, [<pattern>, [<timezone>]])

Function type: Scalar, date and time

Parses a string into a timestamp.

TIME_SHIFT

TIME_SHIFT(<TIMESTAMP>, <period>, <step>, [<timezone>])

Function type: Scalar, date and time

Shifts a timestamp forwards or backwards by a given number of time units.

TIMESTAMP_TO_MILLIS

TIMESTAMP_TO_MILLIS(<TIMESTAMP>)

Function type: Scalar, date and time

Returns the number of milliseconds since epoch for the given timestamp.

TIMESTAMPADD

TIMESTAMPADD(<unit>, <count>, <TIMESTAMP>)

Function type: Scalar, date and time

Adds a certain amount of time to a given timestamp.

TIMESTAMPDIFF

TIMESTAMPDIFF(<unit>, <TIMESTAMP>, <TIMESTAMP>)

Function type: Scalar, date and time

Takes the difference between two timestamps, returning the results in the given units.

TO_JSON_STRING

Function type: JSON

TO_JSON_STRING(expr)

Serializes expr into a JSON string.

TRIM

TRIM([BOTH|LEADING|TRAILING] [<chars> FROM] expr)

Function type: Scalar, string

Trims the leading or trailing characters of an expression.

TRUNC

TRUNC(expr[, digits])

Function type: Scalar, numeric

Alias for TRUNCATE.

TRUNCATE

TRUNCATE(expr[, digits])

Function type: Scalar, numeric

Truncates a numerical expression to a specific number of decimal digits.

TRY_PARSE_JSON

Function type: JSON

TRY_PARSE_JSON(expr)

Parses expr into a COMPLEX<json> object. This operator deserializes JSON values when processing them, translating stringified JSON into a nested structure. If the input is not a VARCHAR or it is invalid JSON, this function will result in a NULL value.

UNNEST

UNNEST(source_expression) as table_alias_name(column_alias_name)

Unnests a source expression that includes arrays into a target column with an aliased name.

For more information, see UNNEST.

UPPER

UPPER(expr)

Function type: Scalar, string

Returns the expression in uppercase.

VAR_POP

VAR_POP(expr)

Function type: Aggregation

Calculates the population variance of a set of values.

VAR_SAMP

VAR_SAMP(expr)

Function type: Aggregation

Calculates the sample variance of a set of values.

VARIANCE

VARIANCE(expr)

Function type: Aggregation

Alias for VAR_SAMP.